Basic analytical profile

Perfil analítico básico

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What is the basic analytical profile?

An analytical profile refers to a series of established tests that are analyzed as a group to study an organ, a tissue or even a pathology. There exist different profiles for determined population groups, such as pregant people. For this reason, many analytic profiles have been created, each one adapted to the needs of an especific profile. The most common ones are basic profile, renal profile, lipdic profile, thyroid profile and pregnancy profile.

A clinical analysis is an additional exploration which is conducted to confirm or discard a diagnosis. It is conducted in a laboratoy and its objective is to study different biological samples of the patient. It is part of the health care process.

With an analysis of this kind we can obtain an objective result. From the reference values established for each population, the medical staff can interpret all the data obtained and make a diagnosis. The results of the analysis can be quantitative (numbers) or qualitative (positive or negative results).

Blood is the body fluid most commonly used when conducting these analysis. It is also quite common to use urine samples. Other less demanded samples can be joints fluid, amniotic fluid, cerebrospinal fluid, saliva or exudates.

Either the results are qualitative or quantitative, each test has normal values established. Regarding the quantitatives, it is necessary to mention that, when the concentration obtained is superior to the established value, it is considered to be excessive. If, on the contrary, it is below the normal values, there will be fault.

Which analysis are inclouded on the basic analytical profile?

All of the essential clinical determinations yo be able to create a more or less wide idea of how the patient’s body works are inclouded in a basic analytical profile. There exist a big number of substances in the body which can be analyzed but the basic analysis chooses only the most important ones. Those are the ones that can affect the general health or the most relevant organs.

One of the functions of this type of analysisi is to serve as a control for people who don’t develop symptomatology nor previous pathologies. Without the analysis, it would not be possible to find out in advance if they have any disease. It is highly advisable to take this kind of test before any medical revision and, at least, once a year.

The basic analysis requires from certain conditions: the patient has to go to the medical centre in strict fasting from 8 to 12 hours. They also need to carry a urine sample, previously explained how to obtain it, which they will deliver to the health staff on their arrival. They will be responsible to pick up the second sample necessary for the analysis: an extraction of venous blood.

With these 2 samples, the analysis will be conducted, and will incloude the next tests:

  • total serum cholesterol. It can be determined if the patient has possibilities to develop a heart disease, and value the efectiveness of a hypolipidemic treatment.
  • Serum glucose. Early glucose testing can detect and diagnose prediabetes, diabetes, hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.
  • Serum creatinine. If the amount of creatinine on blood is compared to the stand reference amount, it is possible to know if the kidneys are working correctly.
  • Serum urea. Its objectivo is to evaluate the renal function. It is recommended not to have a diet rich in protein in the previous 24 hours to the test, so the results are as exact as possible.
  • Serum triglycerides. Testing triglycerides allows to calculate the patient’s LDL cholesterol level and evaluate the risk to suffer possible heart diseases.
  • Aspartate aminotransferase [GOT]. It is useful to evaluate if there exists any damage on the liver and helps identifying possible hepatic damage.
  • Alanine aminotransferase [GPT]. The analysis of this enzyme is also useful to detect damage on the liver.
  • Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase in serum [GGT]. It measures the amount of GGT on blood. With this test it is possible to know whether, if damage is produced on the liver, this is due to a liver disease or a bone disease.
  • Hematological count. This count measures the amount of red blood cells, the amount of hemoglobin in blood and the part of blood made of red blood cells.
  • Leukocyte formula. With it, we can find out the cause of an alteration in the count of leukocytes.
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